Apogee Prepress Glossary
There are 2 types of Actions: Flow Control Actions control the flow of job data through a Production Plan; Result Actions keep track of job results in the processing chain.
:APOGEE Prepress System
The :APOGEE Prepress System manages all data and processing functionality, and runs on one or more dedicated Windows servers.
A job which has been saved as a .arch file. In the Job Ticket Options you can define which parts of the job are archived (input files, marked results, all results, imposition resources, Preflight profiles, etc.).
The arrangement of signatures which are bound to create a finished printed product.
The distance that a printed image extends beyond the trim size of a page, in order to avoid white space at the edges of pages in the trimmed product.
The method used to bind the signatures of a printed product. See Saddle Stitch, Perfect Bound, Come and Go, Cut and Stack, Flat Work, Mechanical.
A section of a book formed by folding and trimming a Press Sheet with 4 or more pages. Each book signature consists of the pages for both the front and the back of the press sheet. Jobs with more pages than can print on a single press sheet are comprised of many book signatures.
The adjustment required to compensate for the undesired rotation of pages as a result of folding a press sheet to obtain a signature.
The process of calculating and compensating for irregularities in the output of a press or imaging system due to dot gain. Dot gain occurs when the ink dots that make up a printed image are larger (for example, due to spreading on paper) than in the halftone screen.
The CID-keyed font file format is designed for fonts with large character sets, and can be used with PostScript printing software. It is the ideal format for Chinese, Japanese, or Korean fonts, and may also be used for Roman fonts with very large character sets. CID refers to the Character ID numbers that are used to index and access the characters in the font.
CIELab is the color space that ICC Profiles and CMMs often use as an intermediary space when converting colors. So a monitor to printer match translates colors from the monitors space (RGB) into Lab and then into the printer's color space (CMYK for example). The L component is the lightness of the color. The a component is the red/green scale (+a is red, -a is green) The b component is the blue/yellow scale (+b is yellow, -b is blue).
The Agfa :APOGEE Prepress Client application allows you to access and control the :APOGEE Prepress System remotely from any Macintosh or PC on the network.
Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black - the standard ink colors used in four-color printing. CMYK is a color model based on the subtractive color theory, and is used by professional printers to reproduce color using offset lithography.
Any paper that has a mineral coating applied after the paper is made, giving the paper a smoother finish.
A color test strip that is printed on the waste portion of a press sheet. It allows a pressman to determine the quality of the printed material relative to ink density, registration and dot gain. It also includes the Star Target, which is a similar system designed to detect ink problems.
Color-managed Display Proofing
Displays the job data on-screen in Raster Preview. However, in this case you have a preview of the rendered result using color management to convert the press color space to the monitor color space based on ICC profiles. With a calibrated monitor environment and correctly configured monitor profile, contract-proofing quality should be achieved.
In traditional prepress, the separation of a color image into four layers corresponding to the four process colors (CMYK) used in process printing.
Come and Go
Come&Go is a term used to refer to a binding style whereby the bound signature contains two complete products; the bound signature is subsequently cut in two.
A term used to refer to multi-color files (i.e. composite printing).
High resolution scanning software which produces files suitable for input to the :APOGEE Prepress System.
Configurable PostScript Interpreter. This is the core software used in all Agfa rendering devices.
The undesired result of the nesting of pages inside each other whereby the inside pages extend slightly beyond the outside pages.
Short vertical and horizontal lines, printed on an output medium which is larger than the page size of a document, to indicate the finished page area.
A Color Space Array is the PostScript profile for a color. The CSA has the information to translate the color data from the origin space to the XYZ space. It is either inserted into the PostScript print stream when the image is printed or is resident in an EPS image. CSA colors are referred to as device-independent, or CIEBased colors.
Computer-to-Film: An analog graphical workflow solution in which the rendered data is sent first to an imagesetter to produce films. These films are then used to generate the plates for printing.
Computer-to-Plate: A fully digital graphical workflow solution in which no film is produced. Instead Digital Film is sent directly from the Render Task Processor to the platesetter.
Cut and Stack
Cut&Stack is a term used to refer to a binding style whereby print sheets are cut and the halves are stacked to create a product.
Desktop Color Separation. This is essentially an enhancement to the EPS definition for pictures that can hold the four-color separations of an image in one file or in 5 separate PostScript files.
An optical device used by printers and photographers to measure and control the density of color.
The degree of tone, weight of darkness or color within a photo or reproduction; measurable by the densitometer.
Device colors (gray, CMYK or RGB) objects are not tagged with an ICC profile. Untagged objects have no description of the color space for which they were created. In a PDF, per definition, they are interpreted as if they were designed for the final output device for which the rendering is done. Therefore untagged objects are called "device colors".
The results of documents that have been rendered by the :APOGEE Prepress System. This high resolution Digital Film can be previewed as 1-bit data (where each raster point is represented by a single display pixel), and can be output directly to a platesetter.
Digital Step & Repeat
This is intended for customers who create Step and Repeat jobs using a front-end application which outputs JDF files. Digital Step&Repeat is used in packaging jobs, and replaces the Impose Task Processor that is used in commercial jobs
The actual dimensions of the area (expressed in pixels x pixels), that the operating systems display driver is set to. Several display resolutions may be available (e.g. 1680 x 1050, 1600 x 100, 1344 x 800).
Document output intent
A PDF document can have a Document Output Intent: it is an ICC output profile that describes what the intended output color space is. Artwork you create within the document-creation application (e.g. InDesign) is assumed to be in that color space. Objects you import from other sources (e.g., Photoshop files) probably have their own profiles. These color spaces are also referred to as “Working Space” and can be controlled in the color settings menu of these applications.
The smallest individual element of a halftone.
Dot for Dot Proofing
Allows you to print screened proofs. These are different from the normal error-diffused proofs (which place ink droplets anywhere in the image). Screened proofs can only place ink droplets where the dots are, which means more ink is applied to a small area. These small areas (the dots) need to be color managed to produce the correct color. Dot for dot processing should only be done on 7+ color pigment proofers.
Terms to describe the occurrence whereby dots are printing larger than they should.
The distance between two adjacent hardware pixels. The dot pitch is the inverse of the Display Hardware Resolution (e.g., 0.258 mm corresponds to approximately 98 dpi).
The Normalize Task Processor can downsample high-resolution bitmap images to reduce file size. Downsampling reduces the number of pixels in a file by averaging the color of pixels in a sample area and replacing that area with one pixel of the averaged color.
Digital Quick Strip: An :APOGEE Prepress mode of operation which supports the PrintDrive DQS mode of Apogee Series3. In this mode, :APOGEE Prepress creates and renders the flat backgrounds and pages separately. These are then sent as separate items to PrintDrive. PrintDrive assembles the pages onto the backgrounds, and then outputs the results as an integral job. This approach keeps your page workflow independent of imposition templates.
After you edit and submit a job, :APOGEE Prepress will automatically determine which results need to be reproduced, and will process them accordingly.
Halftone screens in which the dots are actually elongated to produce improved middle tones.
Encapsulated PostScript: A standard format for a drawing, image, or complete page layout, allowing it to be placed into other documents. EPS files normally include a low resolution screen preview
A sheet of film used to expose one printing plate. A flat may be either a front signature or a back signature.
The Flatten operation flattens multi-layered images, and converts layers that contain transparent objects into layers without transparent objects.
A term used to refer to a binding style whereby print sheets do not have to be folded to create a product.
A sequence of components (Task Processors and Actions) in a Production Plan. A Production Plan has at least one Main processing flow, but can include as many additional flows as you require. Each flow leads to a unique output device.
A set of letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and symbols that share a unified design. The design is called a typeface.
Missing or incorrect fonts often cause problems for prepress operators. The font outlining feature allows even encrypted and protected fonts to be included in the normalized PDF.
Foot to Foot
Imposition layout with the bottom of the pages arranged against the bottom of other pages.
File Transfer Protocol. One of the standard protocols defined for use on a TCP/IP network.
The bundling of two or more different printing projects on the same media.
GCR or Gray Component Replacement
Gray Component Replacement (GCR) is a color separation technique that substitutes black ink for calculated amounts of cyan, magenta, and yellow ink. GCR is a property of all CMYK ICC profiles and is defined during the creation of the ICC profile. In a 4 channel process color model, there are multiple degrees of freedom to create neutral color components. Because neutral components in a color can either be reproduced using black ink or a mixture of CMYK which results in the same neutral color. Profile creating software (like ColorTune Output) makes use of these multiple degrees of freedom to allow different GCR parameters with which lookup tables are made.
These devices process files for imaging on non-Agfa physical output devices, without being directly connected to them. Generic devices can be used for testing or demo purposes. For example, they can emulate the timing of a physical output device without producing real output files.
Shades of gray that range from black to white.
A single-channel image consisting of levels of gray (up to 256 levels of gray with 8 bits of data per pixel.
The grippers of the printing press move the paper through the press by holding onto the leading edge of the sheet; this edge is the gripper edge.
The reproduction of a continuous-tone image, which is made by using a screen that breaks the image into various size dots.
Traditionally, continuous-tone art (such as a photograph) is reproduced by photographing the original artwork through a crossline or contact screen. The resulting halftone image is composed of a matrix of dots, ellipses, squares, or lines of various sizes that can be reproduced via offset lithography.
Margin from the top of a page to the type area.
Head to head
Imposition layout with the top of the pages arranged against the top of other pages.
Any process that increases the color gamut of an output imaging device (printer). Usually refers to adding extra inks and plates to the traditional CMYK set to improve the color gamut of offset lithography.
A HotFolder is an input channel used for file-based input. This type of input is based on dragging files to specific folders. :APOGEE Prepress polls all configured Hot Folders, and automatically picks up and processes the documents that are dropped in them.
HotTickets automate the job creation process, creating multiple jobs on demand. When you send a document to a Hot Ticket input channel, the Hot Ticket creates a new job (by combining a copy of its ticket with the input document), and automatically submits it to the :APOGEE Prepress System. No further user intervention is required.
ICC based colors
ICC-based colors means that objects contain an embedded (or tagged) ICC profile. These color spaces are sometimes also referred to as device independent color spaces since they describe the colors of an object (image or line art) in CIELab (by means of the PCS within the ICC profile) which is by definition a device independent color space.
The International Color Consortium was founded to create an open, vendor-independent, cross-platform standard for color management. ICC Profiles are standards for describing the color characterizations of different devices.
A high-resolution printer used to prepare high-quality page art on paper or film (usually at resolutions between 1,200 and 5,000 dots per inch).
The arrangement of pages on the press sheet so that when folded the pages read consecutively. How you arrange the pages on the sheet depends on the sizes of the press sheet and the pages, and how the job will be folded and bound. In Apogee Prepress this is done through :Apogee Impose.
This file contains low-resolution images to inform the Press operator how much ink he can use for the print job.
Contains the color specifications for the process colors of the used color space. Euro, Swop, Toyo and Dic are some examples of Ink Sets. They all use the standard CMYK color space.
A channel through which you can input your documents for processing by :APOGEE Prepress (e.g. Hot Folder).
JDF (Job Definition Format) technology is an extensible, XML-based format based on Adobe's Portable Job Ticket Format (PJTF), providing compatibility with a greater variety of job creation utilities. :APOGEE Prepress can import JDF files generated by Apogee Series3, or 3rd-party applications, and convert them to :APOGEE Prepress Job Tickets. :APOGEE Prepress interprets JDF instructions for end-to-end job ticket specification, streamlining print production from creation to delivery.
Job Tickets define how the pages of a single job are to be assembled, the processing features to be used (imposition, separation, trapping, overprinting, rasterization, etc.), and the output device to which the rendered job will be sent. A Job Ticket is always associated with one or more unique input channels (Hot Folders, AppleTalk Channels, etc.).
A term used in binding to refer to the evening up of stacked pages to prepare them for binding.
By default, when a Task Processor passes on its results, it does not retain a copy of them. However, the Keep Result Action instructs :APOGEE Prepress to keep this Task Processors results. This ensures that these intermediate results are saved and kept on the system.
An indication of how a press sheet is to be fed into a press.
The edge of the press sheet that is fed into a press. See also Gripper Edge.
This is a type of calibration, especially used for imagesetters and platesetters. Through linearization, you can adjust (linearize) the Stimuli values so that they equal the Wanted values during output. Unlike Calibration, where the curve is not necessarily linear.
LPR/LPD is the printing method most commonly used in TCP/IP networks. The LPR/LPD protocol is broken into two parts, LPR and LPD. LPR (Line Printer Request) is the client part of the protocol that submits the print request. LPD (Line Printer Daemon) is the server part that receives and processes the request.
A term used to refer to a binding style whereby spiral, coils, rings, etc. are used to bind the signatures of a product together.
A Milestone Action passes on the intermediate job results from the associated Task Processor to the next Task Processor in the flow without interruption. However, a notification is generated if the associated Task Processor does not deliver all intermediate job results by a predefined date and time.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. An Internet standard which allows transfer of binary files (word-processing documents, spread sheets, images, sounds, etc.) between any compliant mailers.
A term used in the binding process that refers to preparing the spine edge of folded signatures so the glue has a firmer grip on the pages.
An undesirable halftone pattern produced by the incorrect angles of overprinting halftone screens.
This type of job typically comprises a number of sections (cover, editorial, sports section, etc.) each with different properties (paper type, color or B&W, binding style, etc.). Different signatures may be combined onto a single sheet, separations may be combined on a single plate, different sheets may be printed on different presses, and so on.
A type of imposition which optimizes the use of media.
Convert PostScript, EPS or PDF-files to standardized or normalized PDF files. This process generates a PDF file that is suitable for reliable high-end prepress production.
Ink that completely covers any ink under itself.
Open Prepress Interface. A specification that describes how a document refers to external images (low or medium resolution) without actually including them in a document. At print time, an OPI server replaces these low or medium resolution images by their high-resolution counterparts.
A hardware device that writes raster data onto media such as film, plate or paper. There are two types of output devices: Generic (non-physical) output devices and physical output devices. A typical output device may be a printer, proofer, platesetter, or imagesetter.
A printing technique where a darker color prints on top of a lighter color (i.e. black text on a light colored background), thus eliminating the need for trapping.
A small flap on one of the sides of a folded signature which is used by the stitching machine to grasp the signature.
Each Task Processor is installed with initial settings that are automatically assigned by :APOGEE Prepress, and cannot be changed or deleted. However, you can define additional groups of settings based on the initial settings, and save them under different names. These are referred to as Parameter Sets.
Portable Document Format. A file format used to describe cross-platform documents which are created using Adobe Acrobat Exchange or Distiller, and which can be viewed on-screen and printed, using Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Both job ticket information and the referenced pages can be saved in a single composite PDF file, referred to as a PDF Job. When a PDF job is opened, the embedded job ticket references point no longer to local PDF files, but to the PDF job itself. You can then specify the necessary processing and output parameters, and submit the job for processing.
A term used to describe the binding process where the signatures of a book are held together by a flexible adhesive.
A workstyle whereby both sides of a press sheet are printed in a single pass through the press. See also Perfecting Press
A printing press than can print both sides of a press sheet at once.
A typesetting unit of measurement equaling 1/6th of an inch.
Imposition is the arrangement of pages on the press sheet so that the pages can be correctly folded and read consecutively. How you arrange the pages on the sheet depends on the sizes of the press sheet and the pages, and how the job will be folded and bound. All imposition information can be gathered in one PJTF file (Portable Job Ticket Format). The PJTF file defines the complete imposition for your job.
A reserved space within a job ticket in which you can place one page of a document, or a blank page.
A single separation in a color image.
A high-output computer-to-plate imaging system, such as the Agfa Galileo, which produces full-page images from computer directly onto plate, ready for offset printing.
A basic unit of typographic measurement. A point is approximately equal to 1/72 of an inch.
The language developed originally by Adobe to communicate high-level graphic information to digital laser printers. PostScript expresses complex digital graphics in a device-independent manner. Powerful typesetting features are built into the language for sophisticated handling of letter forms and graphics.
PostScript Printer Description: A readable, machine-parsable text file that provides a uniform approach to using the special features of devices that contain PostScript interpreters. These features include different page sizes, different methods of paper and film handling, memory size, font availability, duplex printing and stapling. All devices do not have the same set of features, and even devices with the same features do not necessarily invoke those features in the same way. The PPD file contains the PostScript language code to invoke each feature.
The process of checking a PDF document against various criteria to ensure that the document meets all the requirements for output or publication. Typically, the criteria vary depending on the output or publishing process.
A set of criteria matching the requirements of a particular output or publishing process.
A pre-separated PDF or PostScript file contains a separate plate for each color in the document. A standard process color job would have four plates (pages) containing just the color information for each color of CMYK. For spot colors, there is a page for each spot color.
Private Page Store
The Page Store is a repository of pages available for a single job. When you input documents to :APOGEE Prepress, the document pages are stored in the Private Page Store associated with the job input channel you selected.
Any color (except cyan, magenta, yellow, black, white, and certain Pantone colors) can be specified as spot colors or process colors When separations are printed, all process colors on a page are broken down into their cyan, magenta, yellow, and black components, each of which is printed on its own separation plate. When combined during offset printing, the process colors can reproduce full-color page art.
A book, magazine, brochure, flyer, etc. that a print-buyer wants a printer to produce.
A series of components (Task Processors and Actions) linked together to form one or more processing flows. These components can be configured to define exactly how jobs are to be input, processed, and output.
A set of job results produced before the final results are output to a plate- or imagesetter. This allows you to verify and correct different aspects of a job before submitting it to press. In :APOGEE Prepress, you can generate a page proof, an imposition proof, or a production proof.
A high-resolution printer (such as the Sherpa Proofer) for printing hard-copy color proofs.
Public Page Store
A repository of pages available for all jobs. To input documents to a Public Page Store, you must use an input channel that was configured using a blank Page Store job template.
This allows :APOGEE Prepress to calculate the exact position of the imagesetter punches in order to ensure the correct positioning of the printed image on the output media.
Agfas Quality Management Software ensures an identical tonal behavior for the different Sherpas, and verifies the output accuracy. This guarantees the same output quality for every Sherpa model.
Reference marks that appear on camera-ready art, generally for CMYK color separations, which help align the overlaying printing plates.
Remote Proofer Controller
The RPC Task Processor provides a low-cost proofing solution for customers working off-site. These customers require only an Agfa proofing device and the RPC software package to print proofs. The prepress shop, equipped with a full :APOGEE Prepress System, creates and exports the RPC files. These files are then sent to the remote site, where they are imported into the customer's RPC application
A Render Task Processor converts a PostScript or PDF document into a matrix of dots, ready for output to a specific output device such as an imagesetter, platesetter, proofer, or color printer.
The ratio of pixels per inch that the Render Task Processor uses when generating an image (expressed in dpi).
A measure of the fineness of spatial detail that a device can record or produce. The higher the resolution, the finer the detail. Resolution is expressed in elements per unit length; for example, pixels per inch (ppi) for scanners and monitors (refer also to dpi).
A collection of objects (such as fonts, preflight profiles, or calibration curves) that are required by selected devices or Task Processors. By default, :APOGEE Prepress provides you with some basic resources for each of the available Resource categories. You can also add your own resources to those supplied.
A result is the tangible output that is produced by a Task Processor component. It can be a document (PDF, TIFF or other file) or an image on a piece of film, plate or paper. A result can be intermediate or final. A final result is the result produced by the last component in the Production Plan flow. All other results are intermediate; they are passed from one component to another; and can be deleted when no longer required.
Red, Green, Blue Refers to the primary colors, namely Red, Green, Blue, in the additive color model. The RGB model is used in color televisions, monitors, scanners, and color film recorders.
A press sheet with rules to indicate the various components such as the imposed pages, the fold sheet, bleed area, etc.
A Run List determines which pages of a job will be processed. If you insert a Run List in your Production Plan, a list of placeholders appears in the Pages tab. You can then select PDF pages from the Page Store and drag them across to the Run List. Not all placeholders need to be filled. A placeholder can be empty, or can contain a blank page. Every Job Ticket needs a Run List whereas a Hot Ticket can contain one, but it is not necessary.
You can upgrade any job in the Job List to a rush job. This puts the job to the top of the queue of jobs waiting to be processed by :APOGEE Prepress. A rush job is processed as soon as :APOGEE Prepress has finished processing the current job.
The binding of booklets or other printed materials by stapling the pages on the folded spine; also called saddle wire.
The conversion of continuous-tone images to halftone dots. The resulting images are Bitmap files ready to be sent to an output device.
The angles at which halftone screens are placed in relation to one another.
A bitmap representation of a font that is used to display the characters on-screen.
The density of dots on the halftone screen, commonly measured in lines per inch (also known as screen ruling).
A measurement equaling the number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.
used in packaging jobs for printing a repetitive design, as in wallpaper or gift wrapping paper. These are usually printed in flexo.
Before an image can be output via an output device, it is split up into separation colors. The most common used separation colors are Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (CMYK). When combining these separations, the Press produces the final image.
In the context of :APOGEE Prepress, this is the Windows 2003/2008 Server on which the :APOGEE Prepress System is running (represented by the 2nd icon in the System Overview window). In future releases, you will be able to deploy the :APOGEE Prepress System over several Servers.
A workstyle whereby a print sheet has different content on the front and back sides. The sheets are turned in such a way that the gripper edge is kept at the same side.
An adjustment applied to template pages and jobs to compensate for the creep that occurs when signatures are folded and nested inside each other.
See Book Signature.
This is a type of calibration which you can use to simulate or test different types of output results. You can for instance purposely use a non-linear curve to obtain a certain dot gain, or attempt other special effects. There are no Measured values for Simulation. The curve is solely based on Wanted values (i.e. the desired curve).
This method does not physically output the proof to a printer. Instead, the job data is displayed on-screen. Raster or PDF soft proofs show trapping and overprint information. These can be sent to customers and verified using Acrobat or Photoshop.
Any color (except cyan, magenta, yellow, black, white, and certain Pantone colors) can be specified as spot colors or process colors. When separations are printed, each spot color on a page is printed onto its own separation plate. In contrast, process colors are broken down into their cyan, magenta, yellow, and black components, each of which is printed on its own separation plate.
Step and Repeat or S&R jobs are self-contained, printable jobs where all data is placed in one file. S&R software is integrated into :APOGEE Prepress to provide the JDF data for a complete packaging workflow (which is more flat-oriented, and contains graphics that are repeated several times over the flat).
Task Processors are software components that perform one or more tasks (specified by the Ticket), such as input via Hot Folder, Normalization, Preflight, Trapping, rendering, etc. A sequence of Task Processors can be linked together to form a Production Plan.
Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol: This is a communications language which is used to enable two different computers to exchange data over a network, particularly over the Internet.
Tagged Image File Format: This is a standard file format used for exchanging bitmapped images between applications or platforms.
A printing technique where adjoining colors are made to overlap slightly to compensate for misregistration on the printing press. Usually the darker color is used to define the edges of an element while the lighter color spreads into it.
Area within the margins of a page.
Allows you to create jobs which contain several different versions, typically for some or all of the text (for example, using different languages or prices), and to choose the optimal set of plates to be made. If, for example, you want to publish a brochure in six different languages, you can include the Versioning Task Processor in your Production Plan, and then print several different language versions of the brochure using a single job. The basic Production Plan is straightforward, using Versioning instead of a Run List Task Processor.
Very Large Format platesetter, such as the Agfa Xcalibur, which can produce plate sizes up to 80 x 58 (2030 x 1475mm).
Software for navigating and viewing web documents.
The deformation (stretch) of the paper as it is printed on the various color units on a web press. The physical deformation occurs as the paper absorbs ink and water, and is accelerated with pressure and tension.
Work And Tumble
Work&Tumble is a workstyle whereby a press sheet has the same content on the front and back sides. The sheets are turned in such a way that the gripper edge is at the opposite side.
Work And Turn
Work&Turn is a workstyle whereby a press sheet has the same content on the front and back sides. The sheets are turned in such a way that the gripper edge is kept at the same side.
A term that refers to how print sheets are printed on a press; see also Sheetwise, Work And Turn, Work And Tumble, Perfecting.